Self-organized Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes grown on Ti grid acting as anode for Li-ion microbatteries were prepared via an electrochemical anodization. Nanotubes are used in composites based on metal, polymer, and ceramic due to good strength and ductility . However, the most important factor that leads to the selection of nanotubes for composite preparation is low weight, low density, and high strength. Nanotubes and its composites have many applications. Those are used as an amplifier in composites. Chicago Brosnan, Daniel T. 2011. Comparison of Anatase Titania to Titanate Nanotubes In a Thin-Film Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Liquid and Solid Electrolyte. Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis › PhD Abstract Anodised titanium dioxide (titania, TiO2) nanotubes have been widely studied over the last few years, following the discovery in 1999 of nanoporous TiO2 films prepared via anodisation in aqueous solution containing small quantities of hydrofluoric acid.